2.3 Themes

Figure 2.3: PRINCE2 themes


Business case.

It has three parts:

  • Output: the product(s) delivered by the project to be used by the users.
  • Outcome: usage of the output positively changes the everyday work of users.
  • Benefit: a measurable improvement resulting from the outcome.

Therefore a Senior User has a key role in the specification and realization of the benefits.

Example:” The output will be the degree, the outcome will be the knowledge and experience, and the benefit will be the opportunities.”



Purpose: define and establish a clear structure of accountability and responsibilities

See “Defined roles and responsibilities” principle.

Examples: Not really applicable, see the example at “Defined roles and responsibilities”.



Quality: validating the product whether it is fit for purpose or not

Acceptance methods and criteria: is the product complete and acceptable to the customers/stakeholders?

Quality Management Strategy defines the applied approach to quality management which then stored and tracked in the Quality Management System

Quality Assurance role checks that the project follow the standards defined in the Quality Management System

Quality Control: testing and approving products

Example: “I have to frequently talk with my cousin and my internship contact about my professional progress and professional quality.”



Aim: defining delivery dates and cost estimations for products that can be the basis for measuring progress

Three level of plans according to management levels:

  • Project Plan (Project Board): high level costs, time estimations
  • Stage Plan (Project Manager): daily management of the stages
  • Team Plan (Team Manager): daily management of a work package

Regarding costs each plan should contain three types of budgets:

  • main budget (activities for creating the product)
  • risk budget (activities for responding a risk)
  • change budget (activities for changing)



Risk: uncertain event that can be positive (opportunity) or negative (threat)
Aim: identify, assess control and mitigate risks this way improving project’s success

  • plan, implement and communicate responses to potential risks
  • risk’s probability, impact, proximity

An exceeded Risk tolerance generates an Exception Report

Risk Register: project’s risks storage



Aim: identify, assess and control any changes to the baseline

Baseline: approved version of the product

Issue control procedure:

  • Capture the Change in the Issue Register (formal) or the Daily Log (informal)
  • Examine (considering cost, time, quality, scope, risks, benefits)
  • Propose responding alternatives
  • Decide for the best alternative
  • Implement it

Configuration management system to track changes (version – naming schema, etc.)



Aim: monitor and compare achievements to plans

Monitoring tolerances (project, stage and work package tolerances)

Progress control:

  • time-driven control: e.g. Highlight Reports, Checkpoint Reports
  • event-driven control: e.g. Exception Report